Denotation: The dictionary definition of a word; its literal meaning apart from any associations or connotations.
Euphemism: An understatement, used to lessen the effect of a statement; substituting something innocuous for something that might be offensive or hurtful.
Example: She is at rest. (meaning, she’s dead)
Hyperbole: An outrageous exaggeration used for effect.
Example: He weighs a ton.
Metaphor: A direct comparison between two unlike things, stating that one is the other or does the action of the other.
Example: He’s a zero.
Example: Her fingers danced across the keyboard.
Metonym: A figure of speech in which a person, place, or thing is referred to by something closely associated with it.
Example: The White House stated today that…
Example: The Crown reported today that…
Oxymoron: A combination of two words that appear to contradict each other. Example: a pointless point of view; bittersweet